A System for Developing Your School List to Help You Get Into Medical School the First Time and Avoid Having to Reapply
(Note: This article represents a modified version of the Introduction and Lesson 1 of our free comprehensive guide to medical school applications, Get Into Medical School: 6 Practical Lessons to Stand Out and Earn Your White Coat.)
As a medical school applicant, you're probably extremely stressed out.
After surviving a grueling pre-med curriculum, slaying the MCAT monster, conducting research, shadowing physicians (i.e., following a doctor around while trying not to annoy them), and participating in other extracurricular activities, you’d think that you deserve to get in somewhere.
Not encouraging :(
You’ve probably read similar information elsewhere, read blog or forum posts by other worried students on sites like Reddit and Student Doctor Network, and commiserated with your premed friends.
Still, you probably have several burning questions as you begin your application process, the answers to which fall into two categories: 1) things you can’t change and 2) things you can affect.
Things You Can’t Change
Example questions that fall into this category include:
- Are my grades high enough?
- Do I have enough clinical hours?
- I don’t have any research experience. Am I doomed? (Again, my article above answers this question)
- Will reapplying hurt my chances of getting in?
- Am I too young/old to apply?
- Does being part of a non-minority group make me a less competitive candidate?
Things You Can Affect
- Should I retake the MCAT?
- Should I enroll in a post-bac program?
- Where should I apply?
- What should I write my personal statement about?
- How do I make my personal statement not sound cliché?
- Whom should I ask for recommendation letters?
- What should I highlight in my AMCAS Work and Activities section?
- How should I approach my secondary applications?
Since my goal is to help improve your odds of getting in and reducing your stress, I want to focus only on things you can affect.
Therefore, I decided to write a multi-part guide on how to approach the medical school admissions process and craft standout applications to help you move on from this tense period of your life and get a step closer to becoming a doctor.
In this first article, I'll highlight three major considerations to help you decide where to apply.
I want to stress that the question of where to apply to medical school is perhaps the single most underrated part of the admissions process. Many students who end up not getting in anywhere simply applied to too many schools where they were not very competitive.
1. Location (But it’s only four years)
From a financial, personal, and admission odds perspective, you should seriously think about where you’re going to spend the next four years of your life.
Financially, there can be a HUGE difference between attending a public school as an in-state resident (less expensive) vs. a public school as an out-of-state resident or private school (much more expensive).
To demonstrate this point, let’s take an example of the annual and total tuition costs from the 2016-2017 academic year (of course, costs are expected to rise every year) between two great Los Angeles medical schools—UCLA (Geffen) and USC (Keck):
- UCLA (in-state): $37,924 x 4 years = $151,696
- UCLA (out-of-state): $50,169 x 4 years = $200,676
- USC (in- or out-of-state): $49,464 x 4 years = $197,856
Thus, if you’re a California resident, attending UCLA instead of USC will save you a whopping $46,160 (that’s a 34% savings)!
(I swear I’m not using this example to promote my graduate school alma mater over USC; I have love for both my hometown schools.)
This example doesn’t even factor in cost-of-living expenses (e.g., food, rent) or interest on your loans that will increase your final repayment amount by tens of thousands of dollars. Ouch!
So yes, med school is only four years, but it could be the most expensive four years of your life.
Personally, consider where you want to spend four years of your 20s (and/or early 30s).
Yes, you’ll be working hard and won’t be living a lavish lifestyle, but your quality of life matters greatly in getting you through med school. Some questions I ask my students include:
- Do you want to live out in the country or in a big city?
- Do you want to live In a cold weather or warm weather place?
- How near to your family do you want to be?
Finally, where you apply geographically influences your chances of admission.
For example, restricting yourself to popular areas, like California or New York City, may hinder your chances.
On the other hand, applying to in-state or regional schools often increases your admissions odds because schools prefer to graduate students who will be more likely to serve their state’s or region’s health care needs.
2. Number of Schools (I was thinking 35!)
Technically, applying to a greater number of schools increases your admission odds.
In reality, applying to too many schools often leads to less attention and effort given to secondary applications (most schools automatically send these) and exhausts you—physically and financially—when it comes time to travel around the country for interviews.
Applying to too few schools, on the other hand, reduces your odds of finding and getting admitted to schools that are right for you. Moreover, you likely won't be able to strike the right balance of "safety," "target," and "reach" schools.
Therefore, I recommend that most students apply to 15-20 schools, and absolutely no less than 12 or more than 25.
(Note: As a general rule, the higher your grades and MCAT scores, the lower number of schools you need to apply to. Conversely, the lower your grades and MCAT scores, the higher number of schools you should apply to.)
3. Your Scores vs. Their Averages (Hopefully yours are higher than theirs)
You can probably recite your cumulative and science GPA and MCAT score without thinking.
This will make it easier for you to compare your scores with various medical schools’ entering classes’ admissions statistics, found on most schools’ websites (see Tufts University School of Medicine's Class Profile as an example).
Better yet, you can use ProspectiveDoctor's wonderful Medical School Chance Predictor to determine your competitiveness at every medical school based on your stats and state of residence.
I want to reiterate that applying mostly to “reach schools” (i.e., schools average whose GPA and MCAT scores are higher than theirs) is one of the primary reasons students end up not matriculating.
That said, your GPA and MCAT scores shouldn’t completely discourage you from applying to a school because averages are averages (brilliant, I know).
A school whose entering class boasts a 3.7 GPA most probably admitted students with a 3.5 and 3.9.
The same applies to MCAT scores. Even if your scores are below a certain school’s averages, you could still get in if you demonstrate excellent "fit" by discussing particular skills of interest in your personal statement, AMCAS Work and Activities section, and secondary essays, such as:
- Speaking Spanish: for medical schools located in areas with a large number of monolingual Spanish speakers
- Having a strong medical research record, including multiple publications: for schools with a heavy research emphasis
- Having a significant service background: for schools emphasizing community involvement
Nevertheless, you should send around three quarters of your applications to schools whose averages you meet or exceed. Here's my suggested breakdown:
- 3-5 "reach" schools
- 6-7 "target" schools
- 7-8 "undershoot" (i.e., "safety") schools
- 3-5 "far undershoot" (i.e., "very safe") schools
And please, apply to all of your in-state and regional schools if your GPA and MCAT scores hover around their averages.
(Note: If you find yourself in the position where you can't identify enough "undershoot" and "far undershoot" US MD schools to fill out these categories, feel free to supplement as needed with DO and Caribbean schools. Regardless, you'll want to prioritize applying to schools with strong residency match rates.)
Choosing the right medical schools you apply to can mean the difference between getting in and having to reapply.
Moreover, where you apply can have a significant financial and personal impact on your next four years and beyond.
Therefore, rather than practicing wishful thinking, taking a data-driven approach to developing your school list can help you achieve major admissions success—and avoid heartbreak.